Stephen Hawking Biography | Black Hole Stephen Hawking

Stephen William Hawking was a world-renowned physicist, cosmologist, author and research director at the Center for Theoretical Cosmology at the University of Cambridge. Stephen Hawking has made important contributions to the explanation of black holes and the Big Theory. Their radiation is also called Hawking radiation. Hawking was the first person to develop a theory to understand the universe. He has also given his support in many campaigns at the global level. He was a professor of mathematics at the University of Cambridge and his theory soon brought him commercial success. His book A Brief History of Time became the best-selling book of all time. At that time the book lasted for a record 237 weeks.

"I want to live more now" these statements were none other than Stephen Hawking, one of the world's great scientists. Which he said on his last birthday. Hearing which the world was astonished for a moment. Today He has been awarded a total of 12 big and small physics awards.


Stephen Hawking Biography

Stephen Hawking's Birth and Place of Birth

Stephen Hawking's full name was Stephen William Hawking. Stephen William Hawking was born on January 8, 1942, in Oxford, England. If you remember, it was the same day on which the great astronomer Galileo was also born. Hawking was born exactly 300 years after Galileo's death.

Parents and Family

Stephen Hawking's father's name was Frank and his mother's name was Isabel Allen Hawking. Family Despite financial constraints, both parents were educated at the University of Oxford where Frank studied medicine and Isabel studied philosophy, politics and economics. They met soon after the start of World War II at a medical research institute where Isabel was working as secretary and Frank was working as a medical researcher. Hawking, who believed in a joint family, lived with his three children and a grandson till his death.

Hawking had two younger sisters, Philippa and Mary, and an adopted brother, Edward Frank David.

Early Life

Stephen Hawking's full name was Stephen William Hawking. His parents' home was in North London. But Oxford was safer than London during World War II, due to which Hawking's family settled in Oxford. When he was eight years old, he settled in St. Albans, twenty miles from north London. At the age of eight, he kept on connecting the radio and other components, due to which the curiosity to know things was born in him.

Hawking's father was a doctor and his children wanted to see him become a doctor at last, but Stephen Hawking was very interested in mathematics since childhood, because of his extraordinary talent, all the people and their families did not know us Steam or Einstein.

Till the age of 11, he attended St. Albans School. Then he went to University College, Oxford. Stephen Hawking began his university education at University College, Oxford in 1959 at the age of 17.

He was interested in mathematics since childhood, but his father wanted him to become a doctor. Since his father was a doctor himself, that's why he wanted it. But incidentally, his further studies were done in Physics because in those days the study of Mathematics was not available in the college and gradually studied in the cosmology section from this subject.

Marriage

Hawking married twice. His first wife was Jane Wilde, whom Hawking married on July 14, 1965, during his graduation. They were together for 30 years. The couple had three children: Robert, born May 1967, Lucy, born November 1970, and Timothy, born April 1979. They got divorced in 1995.

Following his divorce from Jane in 1995, Hawking married Mason in September. After the second marriage, Hawking's family felt excluded and marginalized from their lives.

In 2006, Hawking and Mason quietly divorced, and Hawking resumed a close relationship with Jane, their children, and their grandchildren.

Stephen Hawking's Early Education

Hawking started his schooling at Byron House School in Highgate, London. After this, Stephen Hawking attended St. Albans High School for Girls. Hawking's father wanted his son to attend the well-known Westminster School, but 13-year-old Hawking could not get a scholarship due to illness, so his family could not afford school fees without a scholarship, so Hawking remained in St. Albans. are.

A good result of this was that Hawking stayed close to those friends and had long discussions about Christianity and extrasensory perception. Beginning in 1958, with the help of math teacher Dikran Tahta, he built a computer from clock parts, an old telephone switchboard, and other recycled components.

He was known as "Einstein" during his school days. His father wanted him to study medicine because till that time there were not many jobs in mathematics. Despite his headmaster's advice to wait until the following year, Hawking was awarded a scholarship in March 1959 after taking his exams.

Later, he reached Oxford via University College, where he had to study physics due to a lack of mathematics subjects.

During research in Cambridge, he met a scientist named Jayant Narlikar, he said, seeing Stephen Hawking's interest in mathematics, why don't you choose cosmology, Stephen Hawkings understood this and accepted it happily.

When Stephen Hawking, on his way to leave for university, reached home at the age of 21, he was diagnosed with an incurable disease called a motor neuron. In this disease, the person starts having spasms in the hands and feet and the whole body and finally the person dies due to the blockage of the throat.

After obtaining a first-class degree in Physics, he did his further studies at the University of Cambridge. In 1962, he did research on cosmology in the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physical (DAMTP) at the University of Cambridge. He had almost lost his left side because Stephen Hawking had become inactive more than half of his body, as time went on, Hawking's right side also started becoming inactive.

After fixing these terrible troubles, Stephen Hawking continued to play his role as a scientist and became famous all over the world, after some time the pain of diseases continued and he kept on taking the support of wheelchair, yet he did not give up, that society and science From 1979 to 2009, he served as Professor of Stephen Hawking's College and Head of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics at the University of Cambridge.

Stephen Hawking's Career

Even after completing his studies at Cambridge, Hawking remained associated with this college and he worked here as a researcher. He served as an assistant researcher at DAMTP in 1972, and during this time he wrote his first academic book, The Large Scale Structure of Space-Time. After working here for some time, he was inducted into the Royal Society (Fellowship) in the year 1974.

After which he also worked as Gravitational Physics Reader in DAMTP in the year 1975 and also served here as Professor of Gravitational Physics in the year 1977. In view of his work, in 1979, he was appointed Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge, which is the most famous academic post in the world and he worked in this post till the year 2006.

Stephen Hawking's Disease

The whole world bows down to Hawking's spirit, from his doctors. Hawking's body may not be able to support him, but due to his brain, he is compared to Einstein. Hawking's IQ (Intelligence Quotient) is 160. Which is the highest level of IQ.

He is suffering from one such disease called Steiff Motor Neuron Disease. In which the patient gradually loses his control over any part of the body and the person cannot speak or walk normally. In this disease, the whole body becomes paralyzed. A person is able to talk in gestures only through his eyes.

In fact, when the doctors came to know about this disease, they had even said that now Stephen Hawking will not be able to live for long. But he never allowed his illness to become a weakness. In 1963, when Hawking was 21 years old, he was paralyzed by a disease called Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). When Hawking learned that he was suffering from motor neuron disease, he felt sad, but did not give up. In fact, they did not understand how and with what purpose they should live the rest of their lives. In such a situation, he understood only one thing and that no matter how bad the situation comes, live it with full vivacity. This is the reason why he not only married his girlfriend named Jayne Wilde but also continued his studies further. However, doing all this was not easily possible. Because his organs had left him and gradually his tongue also stopped. Now he could neither walk, nor could he share his point with anyone by speaking. Finally, the time also came when doctors advised spending the rest of life with the help of a wheel-chair. People suffering from this disease usually live for only 2 to 5 years, but they live decades.

Except for Stephen Hawking's brain, no part of his body worked. Despite this, Hawking managed to make a separate identity in the world of science.

Stephen Hawking and the Wheelchair

Although this is no ordinary wheelchair, it is fitted with all the equipment through which they can tell the world about the unsolved mysteries of science. A special computer and speech synthesizer is fitted with his wheelchair. With the help of which they talk to the whole world. Hawking's system is connected to an infrared blink switch. which is placed in his glasses. It is through this that they speak. Apart from this, the gates of his home and office are connected to radio transmission. Hawking's passion is such that he has been solving the complex puzzles and mysteries of space science sitting in his wheelchair for the past several decades. In this, they were also successful to some extent. Hawking's theory about black holes is very funny. In this Hawking has said that black holes do exist in the universe but they are not always black. This means that the energy and all the mass that is essentially lost in the black hole continue to erupt from them in the form of new energy. Commenting on a comment by the famous physicist Einstein, he says that God not only gambles well, but the dice thrown by him fall in places where they are not visible to us. How important Hawking is to the world can be gauged from the fact that whenever he speaks or writes, he gets caught in the eyes of the media around the world.

Works by Stephen Hawking

Stephen Hawking has made important contributions to explain black holes and the Big Bang theory. He holds 12 honorary degrees and has been given America's highest civilian honor.

Professor Stephen Hawking has done much researches on the basic laws governing the universe. Hawking, along with his partner Roger Penrose, did research and told the world that space and time began with the birth of the universe and would end within a black hole.

Using Einstein's Theory of Relativity and Quantum Theory, Hawking also determined that black holes are not completely cool but emit radiation.

Apart from this, Hawking also proposed that there is no limit to the universe and with the help of science it can also be known when and how the universe started.

A Great Scientist

Actually, the field for which Stephen Hawking is remembered for his contribution is cosmology itself. Cosmology, which studies the origin, structure and space-time relationship of the universe. And that is why he is considered an expert in cosmology, thanks to which he was able to develop the theory of 'big-bang' and in 1974 a new definition of 'black holes'. He proved from his research that radiation waves also come out of black holes. Earlier it was believed that nothing comes out of a black hole due to gravity. Hence this theory is known as Hawking Radiation Theory. Hawking explained the leaking energy of black holes.

Professor Hawking first came up with the Theory of Cosmology. It is also called the Union of Relativity and Quantum Mechanics.

Stephen's famous book 'A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes' in 1988 is still one of the most invaluable books in the world. In this book, he created panic around the world by claiming new discoveries about the Big Bang theory, black holes, light cones and the evolution of the universe. After this, his book on cosmology had sold more than 10 million copies. It is considered to be the best-selling book on science in the world.

Apart from this Hawking wrote many famous books like The Grand Design, Universe in Nutshell, My Brief History, The Theory of Everything.

It is noteworthy that due to his contributions, he has been awarded about twelve prestigious awards so far. In addition, he was also a respected member of the Royal Society and the US National Academy of Sciences.

He gave many important theories to the world including Hawking Radiation, Penrose-Hawking Theorems, Beckstein-Hawking Formula, Hawking Energy. His work became the basis of much research.

He possessed an immense wealth of knowledge which can be gauged from the fact that he held 12 honorary degrees.

Black Hole and Stephen Hocking

A black hole is a place in space where no law of physics works. Its gravitational field is very strong. Nothing can escape its pull. Even the light cannot come out after entering here. It absorbs all the light falling on it.

The galaxy is very big, till where it is the end, it does not exist, so many bodies (stars, planetary stones etc.) are scattered in the galaxy (universe). The composition of galaxies is almost like atoms. If there is a collision between them, there is a nuclear fusion between the bodies in the galaxy, due to the energy released from nuclear fusion, the star remains in equilibrium with gravity, so when the hydrogen present in the stars is exhausted. The star slowly starts cooling down. Then stars with a mass 1.5 times the Caucasian mass have exhausted their fuel which they cannot handle on their own contrary to their own gravity. In such a situation, an explosion occurs inside this star or body, which is called a supernova.

After this explosion, if any dense remnant of that body remains, then it becomes a neutron star with a very dangerous density. Due to the excessive gravitational pull in such stars, the body starts to compress. Along with the contraction, finally, there is a contraction up to a certain critical limit and due to such contraction, the volume or time and time of that body are also deformed and in itself the volume and time Due to the disappearance of existence, it becomes invisible and it is the same invisible body which we call a black hole.

Awards and Achievements of Stephen Hawking

Professor Stephen Hawking holds a total of thirteen (13) honorary degrees. At the same time, many awards have also been given to him for his contribution and the information about the awards given to him so far is given below -

In 1966, Stephen Hawking was given the Adams Prize. After this award, he received the Eddington Medal in the year 1975 and the Maxwell Medal and Prize in the year 1976.

The Heineman Prize was given to Hawking in the year 1976. After receiving this award, he was awarded another award in the year 1978 and the name of this award was Albert Einstein Medal.

Hawking was also awarded the RAS Gold Medal in 1985 and the Dirac Medal of the Institute of Physical Sciences in 1987. After this, in 1988 this great scientist was also given the Wolf Prize.

Hawking also won the Prince of Asturias Award in 1989. Shortly after receiving this award, he was also given the Andrew Gement Award (1998), Naylor Award and Lectureship (1999).

The next award he received in the year 1999 was the Lilienfeld Prize and he was also given the Albert Medal by the Royal Society of Art in the same year.

Apart from the above-mentioned awards, he has also been given the Copley Medal (2006), Presidential Medal of Freedom (2009), Fundamental Physics Prize (2012) and BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award (2015).

Stephen Hawking and Film

In the year 2014, the film 'The Theory of Everything' based on the inspirational life of Stephen Hawking was released. In which Eddie Redmayne played Hawking and Felicity Jones played the lead role.

Books by Stephen Hawking

Stephen Hawking has also written many books in his lifetime and this book of his has been written only on the subject of space. Below we have given information about some of the books written by him -

'A Brief History of Time': The name of the first book written by Hawking was 'A Brief History of Time'. This book was based on the topic of Big Bang and Black Hole and published in the year 1988, this book is available in 40 languages.

'The Universe in a Nutshell: This book was published in the year 2001 and this book written by Hawking got the Aventis Price of Science Books in the year 2002.

"The Grand Design": The book "The Grand Design" written by Hawking was published in the year 2010 and information related to space was also given in this book. This book also proved to be a very successful book.

'Black Hole and Baby Universe': This book came out in the year 1993 and this book was a reference to the essays and lectures written by Hawking related to black holes. Apart from this, Hawking also wrote a book for children. Whose name was "George and the Big Bang" and this book came in the year 2011.

Stephen Hawking Net Worth

Stephen Hawking has a house of his own in the city of Cambridge, England and at present, he has a net worth of $20 million. He has earned this wealth through his works, awards and books.

Stephen Hawking Death

According to a family spokesman, Hawking died on the morning of March 14, 2018, at his home in Cambridge. Stephen Hawking's children Lucy, Robert and Tim issued a statement expressing their grief. He was 76 years old. He was suffering from motor neuron disease for 55 years.

Precious thoughts of Great Scientist Stephen Hawking

  • Look up at the stars, not under your feet. Try to know the meaning of what you see and wonder what it is that makes the universe exist. Be curious.
  • No matter how hard life seems, you can always do something or the other and be successful.
  • I've seen people who say that everything is pre-determined and that we can't do anything to change it, they look before crossing the street.
  • Intelligence is the ability to adapt to change.
  • Science is not only a follower of logic but also of romance and passion.
  • If you are always angry or complaining then people will not have time for you.
  • My advice to other disabled people would be, focus on the things that your disability doesn't prevent you from doing well, and don't feel sorry for the things it hinders you from doing. Do not become handicapped both in spirit and in the body.

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