Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Biography

The birth anniversary of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, the great hero of the Indian freedom struggle, the founder of Azad Hind Fauj, and who gave the slogan of Jai Hind, is celebrated every year on 23 January. Brave soldier, a wonderful player of politics, Subhash Chandra Bose communicated the importance of freedom in the public consciousness very effectively. He aroused the essential consciousness of the proletariat, youth, students, women and almost all classes of active cooperation in the freedom movement.

Due to his uniqueness and his personality and achievements, Subhash Chandra Bose holds an important place in the history of India. Many such revolutionaries emerged in the freedom movement of India, who made their important contribution in freeing the country from the shackles of independence and forever engulfed the hearts of their countrymen. One such revolutionary is Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose. Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose put everything at stake for the freedom of the country.

Many student and youth organizations were born in the middle and end of the 20th century. He wanted to give a holistic form to the anti-imperialist movement by demanding Poorna Swaraj and insisting on mixing nationalism with socialism.

In the 1920s–30s, influential leftist groups emerged in Indian politics. Socialism became a principle among the Indian youth. At such a time, Subhash Chandra Bose emerged as a hero of the youth. He had set an ideal for the freedom of the motherland without any means and helped with his determination, invincible courage, unparalleled sacrifice and amazing valor.

Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose Biography | Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose

Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose Biography | Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose

Subhas Chandra Bose Birthday and Place of Birth

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose was born on January 23, 1897, in an affluent Bengali family in Cuttack, Orissa. The birth anniversary of Subhash Chandra Bose ji is celebrated every year on 23 January to commemorate his birth anniversary.

Parents and Family of Subhas Chandra Bose

His father's name was Jankinath Bose and his mother's name was Prabhavati. Jankinath Bose was a famous lawyer of Cuttack city. Prabhavati and Janakinath Bose had 14 children in total, including 6 daughters and 8 sons. Subhash Chandra was their ninth child and fifth son.

Jankinath Bose worked for a long time and he was also a member of the Bengal Legislative Assembly. The British government gave him the title of Rai Bahadur. Prabhavati Devi's father's name was Ganganarayan Dutt. The Dutt family was considered an aristocratic family of Kolkata. Of all his brothers, Subhash was most attached to Sharad Chandra. Sharadbabu was the second son of Prabhavati and Jankinath. Subhash used to call her Mejda. Sharadbabu's wife's name was Vibhavati.

Subhash Chandra Bose's Marriage 

Subhas Chandra Bose married his secretary and Austrian girl Emily in 1937. They also had a daughter named Anita who currently lives with her family in Germany.

In 1934, when Subhas Chandra Bose was staying in Austria for his treatment. At that time, he needed an English typist to write his book. One of his friends introduced him to an Austrian woman named Emilie Schenkl. Emily's father was a renowned veterinarian. Subhas Chandra Bose was attracted to Emily and they naturally fell in love.

In view of the strict laws of Nazi Germany, both of them got married in the Hindu system in 1942 at a place called Bad Gastein. In Vienna, Emily gave birth to a daughter. Subhash saw her for the first time when she was barely four weeks old. They named her Anita Bose. When Subhash died in the so-called plane crash in Taiwan in August 1945. At that time Anita was three and a half years old. Anita is still alive. Her name is Anita Bose Pfaff Anita Bose Pfaff. Anita Faf sometimes also comes to India to meet her father's family members.

Early Life of Subhash Chandra Bose

Benimadhav Das, the principal of Ravenshaw School, had a great influence on Subhash's young mind. Madhav Das taught them to follow moral values ​​and also taught them that the real truth lies in nature, so dedicate yourself completely to it. As a result of which he started engrossed in meditation for hours after finding secluded places full of river banks and dunes and natural beauty.

Due to Subhash Chandra's involvement in the work of Sabha and Yogacharya, his family members started getting worried. Because he used to spend more and more time alone. The family members started worrying about their future. They started thinking that even after being so promising and meritorious, they should not lag behind in studies. Contrary to the expectations of the family, in 1912-13, he secured second place in the university in the matriculation examination, due to which his parents were very happy.

In the beginning, Netaji had a lot of intention to serve the country, but because of his family, he accepted to go abroad. Following his father's orders, he went to London on 15 September 1919 and studied there at the University of Cambridge. From there he joined ICS. Passed the exam and got the fourth position in the merit list. But he had made up his mind to serve the country. That is why Netaji joined ICS. resigned from.

Elementary Education of Subhash Chandra Bose

Subhas Chandra Bose's early education took place in the local missionary school in Cuttack. He was admitted to the Protestant European School in 1902. This school was run on the English method, due to which the English of the children studying in this school was better than the students of other Indian schools. There were other benefits of studying in such a school like discipline, proper behavior and maintenance etc. In these too, discipline and orderliness were developed permanently in childhood itself. While studying in this school, he realized that he and his companions live in different worlds that can never be reconciled. Subhash used to come first with good numbers in studies from the beginning but he was not good at all in sports. Whenever he participated in any competition, he would always get defeated.

Higher Education of Subhash Chandra Bose

After completing his primary education from Missionary School in 1909, he was admitted to Ravenshaw Collegiate. After joining this school, Bose underwent extensive mental and psychological changes. This school was completely filled with the atmosphere of Indianness. Subhash was already a brilliant student, topping all subjects except Bangla. He also worked hard in Bengali and got good marks in the first annual examination itself. Along with Bengali, he also started studying Sanskrit.

Subhash Chandra Bose First Voice for Freedom

In the mid-1930s, Bose traveled to Europe. He did research first and then wrote the first part of the book 'The Indian Struggle', in which he covered all the freedom movements of the country during the year 1920-1934. Bose formed the National Planning Commission after being elected the President of the Indian National Congress in the year 1938 (Haripura).

Formation of INA by Subhash Chandra Bose

The INA was first formed under the leadership of Mohan Singh and Japanese Major Iwaichi Fujiwara and in the Malayan (present-day Malaysia) campaign, Japan captured Singapore. Indian prisoners of war of the British-Indian Army were included.

Formation of Azad Hind Fauj by Subhash Chandra Bose

Netaji was the foremost leader of India's freedom struggle. During the Second World War, to fight against the British, he formed the Azad Hind Fauj with the help of Japan. Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose announced the establishment of the Azad Hind Government on 21 October 1943 at the Kaithi Cinema Hall in Singapore. There Netaji was elected Prime Minister of the Interim Government of Independent India, Minister of War and Foreign Affairs and Supreme Commander of the Army.

The slogan of Jai Hind given by him became the national slogan of India. You give me blood, I will give you freedom, the slogan was also given by him, which still inspires the youth of our country. People in India address him as 'Neta ji'. The sacrifice and sacrifice of this great hero of Indian history showed India the path of freedom. While Netaji formed the first women's army in the world, the Azad Hind government was formed through diplomatic efforts.

Netaji, a hardworking and courageous personality, had said the same thing very effectively in his last message to the Azad Hind Fauj. “Future generations of Indians who, as a result of your great sacrifice, will not be born as slaves, but as free people. Will give prayers to the name of you people. And will proudly declare to the world that you were her ancestors, who paved the way to ultimate success and glory.

Message to the countrymen on the disintegration of Azad Hind Fauj

“The first chapter of the Indian freedom struggle is completed and the place of East Asian sons and daughters will remain indelible in this chapter. Don't be discouraged by our temporary failure. No power in the world can keep India a slave.

According to the sources available at that time, it is said that Netaji had decided to go to Soviet Russia from the time he returned to Bangkok after the defeat in Rangoon. On 15 August 1945, Netaji held the last meeting with his Provisional Government in which it was decided that Bose along with Abid Hasan, Devnath Das, Netaji Habibur Rahman, S.A. Iyer and some other companions should leave the boxes. These people went to Russia by plane, stopping at Bangkok and Saigon.

Subhash Chandra Bose Matching with Deshbandhu Chittaranjan

After coming to India, he came in contact with Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das and he accepted him as his guru and jumped to liberate the country. He did many important works with Chittaranjan Das, whose discussion has become an important part of history. During the freedom struggle, Subhash Chandra Bose was appreciated everywhere. Soon he became an important youth leader. Subhashbabu, along with Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, started the Youth Independence League under Congress.

But Bose's hot and acrimonious attitude did not like the soft behavior of the Congress much. He resigned his resignation letter at the Congress meeting held in Calcutta on 29 April 1939 and on 3 May 1939, Subhash Chandra Bose founded the Forward Bloc i.e. Forward Party in Calcutta. World War II started in September 1939. Fearing Subhash's anti-war movement, the British government arrested him. In 1940, Subhash was placed under house arrest by the British government at his house. Netaji, showing indomitable courage and understanding, escaped from the house, scolding everyone.

Political Life of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose

Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose jumped into the freedom struggle or revolution as soon as he returned to India after leaving the civil services job. Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose joined the Indian National Congress Party. Initially Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose was the leader of the Congress party in Calcutta. Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose used to work under the leadership of Chittaranjan Das. Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose considered Chittaranjan Das ji as his political guru. 

In 1922, Chittaranjan Das left the Indian National Congress party with Motilal Nehru and formed a separate party called Swaraj Party. When Chittaranjan Das ji was making a strategy together with his Swaraj Party, then Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose had made a special identity among the young, students and working people of Calcutta, West Bengal in the meantime. Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose aspired to see our subject India as free India as soon as possible.

Help from Japan and meeting with Hitler

Some historians believe that when Netaji had tried to get help from Japan and Germany, the British government got upset and ordered the detectives to eliminate them in 1941.

Netaji, while addressing the army as 'Supreme Commander' in front of the Town Hall of Singapore on 5 July 1943, let's go to Delhi! and together with the Japanese army took a fierce front from the British and Commonwealth forces in Imphal and Kohima including Burma.

Netaji, disguised as a Muslim cleric, traveled through Peshawar, Afghanistan, to Berlin. In Berlin, he met Hitler, the then-dictator of Germany and sought help from Germany and Japan to make India independent. Established Indian Independence Organization and Azad Hind Radio in Germany. During this time Subhashbabu came to be known as Netaji. But Germany was far away from India. So on 3 June 1943, he left for Japan by submarine. After reaching East Asia and Japan, he started expanding the Azad Hind Fauj. In East Asia, Netaji made several speeches and called upon the local Indian people to join the Azad Hind Fauj and help them financially. He gave the message in his call, "You give me blood, I will give you freedom."

During the second world war, with the support of the Japanese army, the Azad Hind Fauj attacked Indian colonial govt. To motivate his army, Netaji gave the slogan "Delhi Chalo". Both the armies won the Andaman and Nicobar Islands from the British, but in the end, the British had the upper hand and the Azad Hind Fauj had to retreat.

After the defeat of Japan in World War II, Netaji needed to find a new way. He had decided to seek help from Russia. On August 18, 1945, Netaji was on his way to Manchuria by plane. During this journey, he went missing. After this day he was never seen by anyone.

Azad Hind Government

On 21 October 1943, Subhas Chandra Bose was the supreme commander of the Azad Hind Fauj and from this authority, he formed the provisional government of independent India, which was recognized by the governments of 11 countries including Germany, Japan, Philippines, Korea, China, Italy, Manchukuo and Ireland. . Japan gave the Andaman and Nicobar Islands to this provisional government. Subhash went to those islands and renamed them again.

In 1944, the Azad Hind Fauj attacked the British again and liberated some Indian territories from the British. The Battle of Kohima was a fierce battle fought from 4 April 1944 to 22 June 1944. In this war, the Japanese army had to retreat, and that proved a turning point.

Establishment of Azad Hind Radio

Azad Hind Radio was started in Germany in 1942 under the leadership of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose. The purpose of this radio was to spread propaganda to the Indians to fight for getting independence from the British.

Mahatma Gandhi was called 'Father of the Nation' on Azad Hind Radio

While talking to Gandhiji through his speech on Azad Hind Radio on July 6, 1944, Netaji explained his reason for seeking aid from Japan and the objective of establishing the Azad Hind Fauj. During this speech, Netaji called Gandhiji the Father of the Nation and sought his blessings for his war. Thus, Netaji first called Gandhi the Father of the Nation.

Influence of Vivekananda's Education

Subhas Chandra Bose was highly influenced by Vivekananda's teachings and considered him as his spiritual mentor, while Chittaranjan Das was his political mentor. In the year 1921, Bose took over the editing of the newspaper 'Forward' published by the Swaraj Party of Chittaranjan Das.

In the year 1923, Bose was elected President of the All India Youth Congress as well as the Secretary of the Bengal State Congress. In the year 1925, he was sent to the Mandalay Prison due to his association with the revolutionary movements, where he contracted tuberculosis.

Subhash Chandra Bose's Death

Netaji was put on a large Japanese aircraft in Saigon. Netaji traveled with Habibur Rahman in this plane. On 18 August, he went to Taiwan by fighter plane and after that, his plane mysteriously disappeared. On 23 October 1945, Tokyo radio broadcasts reported that the plane crashed while taking off at Taihoku Airport, in which the driver and one of his companions died on the spot and Netaji was badly scorched by fire. . He was admitted to the military hospital there and he breathed his last in this hospital.

The common theory says that Bose died in a plane crash in 1945. But is this the truth? Even after that many people claimed that they had seen Bose alive. Some said that Bose had gone to Russia. A bookmaking a similar claim "Bose: The Indian Samurai - Netaji and the INA Military Assessment". This book was first published in 2016. It is written in this book that Bose did not die in the plane crash. This book has been written by retired Major General GD Bakshi.

Information about Netaji who played the lead role:-

1913 : He started his college education in 1913 and joined Presidency College, Calcutta.

1915: In the year 1915, he passed the Intermediate examination in the first division.

1916: He was suspended for misbehaving with a British professor.

1917: Subhash Chandra took admission in Philosophy Honors in the Scottish Church College in 1917.

1919: With first place in Philosophy Honours, left for England to take the ICS examination.

1920: Subhash Chandra Bose not only passed the ICS exam with the highest marks in English but also secured the fourth position.

1920: He received a prestigious degree from Cambridge University.

1921: He was arrested by the British.

1922: On August 1, 1922, he came out of jail and joined the Swaraj Dal in the Gaya Congress session under the leadership of Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das.

1923: In 1923, he was elected the President of the Indian Youth Congress. Along with this, the secretary of Bengal Congress was also elected. He started editing Deshbandhu's established magazine Forward.

1924: Swaraj Dal got huge success in the Calcutta Municipal Elections. Deshbandhu became the mayor and Subhash Chandra Bose was named the chief executive officer. The British government could not tolerate the growing influence of Subhash and in October the British government once again arrested him.

1927: Netaji, along with Jawaharlal Nehru, was elected General Secretary of the All India Congress Committee.

1928: To give an edge to the freedom movement, he formed a voluntary organization during the Calcutta session of the Indian Congress. Netaji was elected the General Officer-in-Command of this organization.

1930: He was sent to jail. It was during his stay in jail that he won the election of the Mayor of Calcutta.

1931: Bhagat Singh was hanged on March 23, 1931, which led to differences between Netaji and Mahatma Gandhi.

1932–1936: Netaji met Mussolini in Italy, Felder in Germany, Valera in Ireland and Roma Ronand in France to pressurize foreign leaders for India's independence.

1936: On his arrival in India on April 13, 1936, he was arrested in Bombay.

1936-37: After his release, he began publishing 'Indian Struggle' in Europe.

1938: Elected Congress President in Haripur session. Meanwhile, Rabindranath Tagore honored him at Shantiniketan.

1939: After defeating Mahatma Gandhi's candidate Sitaramayya, he became the President of Congress once again. Later he established the forward block.

1940: He was placed under house arrest. Meanwhile, his health was adversely affected due to fasting.

1941: In a dramatic event, he disappeared on 7 January 1941 and reached Germany via Afghanistan and Russia.

1941: On April 9, 1941, he submitted a memorandum to the German government, which referred to the mutual cooperation between the Axis Powers and India. Subhas Chandra Bose founded the Swatantra Bharat Kendra and Swatantra Bharat Radio in November this year.

1943: He reached Japan with the help of the Navy and after reaching there he addressed the Indians through Tokyo Radio. On October 21, 1943, he established the Azad Hind Government and it was established in Andaman and Nicobar, where it was named 'Shaheed and Swaraj'.

1944: The Azad Hind Fauj reached Arakan and a battle broke out near Imphal. The army captured Kohima (Imphal).

1945: Japan surrenders after a nuclear attack in World War II. A few days later, the news of Netaji's death in an air crash came. However, no direct evidence has been received in this regard.

Books are written by Subhash Chandra Bose

Indian Freedom Struggle.

Azad Hind.

Younger dream.

Alternative Leadership.

Necessary cash account.

The Essential Writings of Subhas Chandra Bose.

5th Subhash Chandra Bose overall.

Battle Ranchanabali.

Chalo Delhi: Writings and Speeches, 1943 -1945.

Ideas of a Nation: Subhas Chandra Bose.

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, The Last Face in His Own World.

India's Spoken Man Abroad: Letters, Articles, Speeches and Settlement.

Life and Times of Subhash Chandra Bose, as Told in His Own Words.

Selected Speeches.

Subhas Chandra Bose's Agenda for Azad Hind.

India After Independence: Selected Speeches of Subhas Chandra Bose.

Youth dreams.

At the crossroads of change.

Statements or Slogans of Subhash Chandra Bose –

"Give me blood, I will give you freedom!"

“Nationalism is inspired by Satyam, Shivam and Sundaram, the highest ideal of mankind.”

“There is no doubt in my mind that the major problems of our country like poverty, illiteracy, disease, efficient production and distribution can be solved only through socialist means.”

“It is our duty to pay the price of our freedom with our blood. The freedom that we will get through our sacrifice and hard work, we should have the strength to protect it.

“Madhya Bhavao Gudum Dadyat – That is, where there is a lack of honey, the work of honey should be extracted from the jaggery itself!”

“Nationalism in India has infused a creative force that had been dormant among the people for centuries.”

“Today we should have only one wish, the desire to die so that India can live! Willing to die the death of a martyr so that the way of freedom can be paved with the blood of martyrs.

“If you have to bow down temporarily, bow down like a hero!”

“I do not know who among us will survive in this war of freedom! But I know it, in the end victory will be ours!”

“Failures are sometimes the pillars of success!”

"Compromise is a very unholy thing!"

“Sufferings undoubtedly have an intrinsic moral value!”

"I've never had a happy life! I don't know how to do things that please others!”

"Struggle made me a man! I instilled confidence, which was not there before!”

“Premature maturity is not good, be it a tree, or a person, and its loss is bound to suffer later!”

"I'm not at all afraid of the uncertainty of life!"

“I did not have innate talent, but I have never had the tendency to avoid hard work!”

“Standing on the threshold of my college life, I realized that life has meaning and purpose!”

"The future is still in my hands!"

“Character building is the main duty of the students!”

“It is a very difficult task to break the bondage of karma!”

"A mother's love is the deepest and most selfless! It cannot be measured in any way!”

"Remember, tolerating injustice and compromising with the wrong is the greatest crime."

“A true soldier needs both military and spiritual training.”

“History bears witness that no tangible change has been achieved by mere deliberation.”

During the last twenty-five years of the freedom struggle, his role was that of a social revolutionary and he emerged as a unique political warrior. Subhash Chandra Bose was born at a time when the non-violence and non-cooperation movements were in their infancy in India. Influenced by these movements, he played an active role in the Quit India Movement. Dr. Bose, a pediatrician by profession, established the Netaji Research Bureau to preserve Netaji's political and ideological legacy. Netaji's contribution and influence was so great that it is said that if Netaji had been present in India at the time of independence, perhaps India would have remained a union nation and India would not have been partitioned.

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