Guru Gobind Singh Biography | History of guru gobind singh ji

Chidiyon se main baaj ladaoo,
Geedadon ko main sher banaoo!
Sava laakh se ek ladaoo tabhi Gobind Sinh naam kahaun!!

Guru Gobind Singh Ji was the tenth religious guru of the Sikhs. This year 355th birth anniversary of Guru Gobind Singh Ji is being celebrated. The great warrior, poet and thinker Guru Gobind Singh Ji founded the Khalsa Panth, which is marked as the most important event in the history of Sikhism. Guru Gobind Singh Ji not only showed the right direction to the people through his great teachings, but he also protested against the atrocities and injustices happening in society. He fought many wars with the Mughal emperor and won most of them. He founded the Khalsa Panth. He was not only a guru but also a great philosopher, eminent poet, fearless and fearless warrior, experienced writer and connoisseur of music. He succeeded his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur. He became the leader of the Sikhs at the age of just 9 and remained the last Sikh Guru. Salute to such a great soul.

History of Guru Gobind Singh Ji

Birthday and Birth Place

There are different opinions of the scholars regarding the birth of Guru Gobind Ji, but most scholars believe that the 10th Guru of the Sikhs, Guru Gobind Singh was born in Patna Sahib, Bihar between 1666-1708. According to the Zululian calendar, Guru Gobind Singh was born on 22 December 1666 in Patna. But the Julian calendar is not valid at the present time.


His father was Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Guru of Sikhism and his mother was Gujri Devi. Sri Guru Gobind Singh was the only child of his parents.

Early Life

He was the only son of the 9th Sikh Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur Singh and Gujari Devi, whom everyone called Gobind Rai as a child. He remained in Patna for about 4 years, while his place of birth is today known as "Takht Shri Patna Harimander Sahib".

After this, at the age of 4, he returned to Punjab with his family and then when he was 6 years old, he started living in Chak Nanki, located in the Shivalik valley of the Himalayas.

Chak Nanki was founded by his father and the 9th Sikh Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur Singh, in what is today known as Anandpur Sahib.

Guru Gobind Singh Ji took his primary education at this place and learned the unique art of weaponry, fighting, archery and martial arts to become a great warrior. Apart from this, got knowledge of Punjabi, Braj, Mughal, Persian, Sanskrit languages ​​and composed the epic "Vara Shri Bhagauti Ji Ki".

Responsibility at a Young Age

Shri Tegh Bahadur Ji was touring the country for the promotion of Sikhism at that time, he settled his family in Patna Sahib and himself went towards Assam. When Guru Ji reached Bangladesh, he got the information of Guru Gobind Singh Ji's birth. Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji was very young when Sri Tegh Bahadur Ji came to Sri Anandpur Sahib and called the family.

When he was born, it was ruled by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. His royal army used to do a lot of oppression on the Indian people and he issued orders to all his governors across the country to demolish the temples of Hindus. The governor of Kashmir was Iftikhar Khan, who was determined to implement the orders of the emperor. Temples started falling in Kashmir and Hindus were converted to Muslims.

In such a critical situation when a group of Kashmiri Pandits pleaded for help from their father Guru Tegh Bahadur, son Gobind said to his father, "Father, who can be a bigger man than you to protect Dharma". In this way, to protect the Hindu religion in India, Shri Govind Singh Ji led his father towards Delhi at a very young age. Later, on the orders of Aurangzeb, Shri Tegh Bahadur ji was martyred.

After the martyrdom of Guru Ji, Shri Guru Gobind Singh Ji issued orders to all his Sikhs to wear arms and keep good horses, in the same way as Shri Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji did after the martyrdom of Shri Arjun Dev Ji. After the martyrdom of his father Guru Tegh Bahadur, Gobind Rai was duly placed on the throne on 11 November 1675 at the age of nine. After this Gobind Rai first added Singh to his name and asked all the Sikhs to add Singh to his name and he became Gobind Singh.

Guru Gobind's marriage

Guru Gobind ji, the 10th Sikh Guru, had three marriages, his first being with a girl, Jeeto, who lived in Basantgarh, near Anandpur. After their marriage, three children were born to them named Zorawar Singh, Fateh Singh and Jujhar Singh.

After this, he had a second marriage with Mata Sundari and after marriage, he got a son named Ajit Singh. Then Guru Gobind Ji had married Mata Sahib for the third time, but he did not get any child from this marriage.

Establishment of Khalsa Panth

The Khalsa Panth was established in the year 1699 on the day of Baisakhi, keeping in mind to raise their voice against tyranny and injustice and to build a strong army of great warriors dedicated to protecting the dignity of humanity.

The word Khalsa is synonymous with purity i.e. one who is pure in mind, word and deed and has a sense of devotion towards the society, only he can accept the Khalsa Panth. Khalsa is a collective form of duly initiated followers of Sikhism. Guru Gobind ji gathered all his followers at Anandapur on the day of Baisakhi and made a mixture of water and patasha (Punjabi sweetness) and called this sweet water "nectar".

He then asked his swayamsevaks who are ready to sacrifice their heads for their guru, to join the Khalsa. In this way 5 swayamsevaks joined the Khalsa of their own accord. He said a new thing about Panj Pyare. The Panj Pyare were five brave people of different castes and sects of the society who came from different parts of the country. After which he gave nectar to these five volunteers and also took nectar himself and changed his name from Guru Gobind Raya to Guru Gobind Singh. By drinking prasad from the same bowl, he awakened the feeling of equality and self-respect among the Sikhs and tried to bind them in the thread of unity. He said "the race of man is all one".

After becoming a baptized Sikh, Guru Gobind Singh also established the basic tenets of the Khalsa Panth, also known as Gurugobind's '5 Kakar' or '5 Kakka'. The five symbols of the baptized Khalsa Sikhs are as follows –

Kangha - A wooden comb, which is considered a symbol of cleanliness and cleanliness.

Kara - Wearing a metal bracelet in the hand.

Kachera - cotton briefs, that means knee-length underwear

Hair - which all gurus and sages have been wearing, that is, true baptized Sikhs should never cut their hair.

Saber - A cut curved sword.

There is Khalsa Vani of Guru Govind Singh Ji.

"Waheguru Ji Da Khalsa Waheguru Ji Di Fateh"

sense of abandonment

He was well versed in Sanskrit, Persian, Punjabi and Arabic languages. He was also a poet who wrote only one composition "Chandi Deewar" in Punjabi language and composed many other compositions in the Hindi language. Important works are Zafarnama and Vichitra Natak. He fought many battles in life, among them the battle of Bhangani, the battle of Chamkaur, the battle of Muktsar and the battle of Anand Sahib are famous. In the Chamkaur war, Guruji's army of 40 Sikhs fought ten thousand soldiers of the Mughal Imperial Army with courage. In this, both the elder sons Ajit Singh and Jhuzar Singh were martyred. Later, when he got a chance, his two more sons were also elected alive by the enemies in the wall. During this time Mata Gujri Devi also died.

the lesson of decent conduct

Aurangzeb and other subedars were always terrified by Guruji's talent, courage. Taking the opportunity, Guru Gobind Singh was blatantly wounded by the Nawab of Sirhind, Wazir Shah. At the age of 41, when he realized that his last hour had come, he called the Sikh Sangat and asked them to bring along the Guru Granth Sahib (the religious book of the Sikhs). Then he taught the people of Khalsa Panth to always behave decently, to love patriotism and to help the downtrodden. He said "Saints, after me no living person will sit on the throne of this guru, Guru Granth Sahib will sit on this guru's throne, now you guys should guide yourself from him and get orders from him".

kind-hearted person

A person with power usually becomes arrogant but Guru Gobind Singh ji was a man of generous heart along with being brave. Kindness was present in him since childhood. There is an interesting incident from his childhood which shows the generosity and kindness of Guru Gobind Singh. Gobind used to scatter the punia kept for spinning an old woman's yarn. Saddened by this, she would reach Gobind Singh ji's mother Gujri with a complaint. Mother would make him happy by giving him the money. Mata Gujri asked Gobind Singh "Why do you trouble the old woman?" In response, Gobind Singh ji said that if I do not disturb him to remove his poverty, how will you give him money? This generosity of Gobind Singh ji continued even when he grew up. He had to lose his children during the war with the Mughals. Despite this, he helped in placing the last Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar on the throne of Delhi.

Guru Gobind Singh in the last days

Guru Gobind ji gave a message to the people to live in harmony with each other with love and brotherhood. Birth of Guru Gobind Singh In the Sikh community, the birthday of Guru Gobind Singh came to be celebrated as Guru Gobind Jayanti or Guru Parv. After the death of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, his son Bahadur Shah was made the successor. Guru Gobind ji helped in making Bahadur Shah the emperor. Because of this, a very good relationship was formed between Bahadur Shah and Guru Gobind ji. On the other hand, Nawab Wajid Khan of the outskirts did not like the friendship of Guru Gobind Singh and Bahadur Shah at all, so he planned to kill Guru Gobind ji with his two Pathans. Around 1707 AD, Gobind Singh went to Nanded in Maharashtra, where he made Baba Banda Singh Bahadur by transmitting nectar to Madho Das recluse and sent him towards Punjab to face the oppression. Guruji was stabbed by two treacherous Pathans in Nanded. Guruji killed one Pathan on the spot with his sword while the other was killed at the hands of the Sikhs. The wounds of Gobind Singh ji were very deep and on 7 October 1708 AD, his flame was absorbed in the flame. He gave the Guru Gaddi to the Guru Granth Sahib.

Gurdwara built at the birthplace

From childhood, the child Gobind Rai was of a different nature from all the other children. They consider weapons like bow, arrow, dagger, dagger, spear, sword, etc. as toys and had acquired proficiency in operating it at an early age.

The early part of Guru Gobind Singh's childhood was spent in his maternal grandmother Patna. A Gurudwara has been constructed at his birthplace in Patna. This Takht is famous as Shri Harminder Sahib, Patna Sahib. Devotees from all over the country come here to see the birthplace of the tenth Guru of the Sikhs. This Gurudwara was built by the first Maharaja of the Sikh dynasty, Ranjit Singh. It was first constructed in the 18th century.

Major work done by Guru Gobind Singh Ji

The list of major works done by Guru Gobind Singh is as follows -

It was Guru Gobind Sahib Ji who started the tradition of putting a lion in front of the name of the Sikhs, which is still being run by the people of the Sikh religion.

Guru Gobind Singh Ji accomplished this by compiling the great teachings of many great Sikh Gurus into the holy scripture of the Sikhs, the Guru Granth Sahib.

Waheguru, Guru Gobind Singh ji ended the tradition of successors to the Gurus, making the Guru Granth Sahib the most sacred and symbol of the Guru for the people of Sikhism.

The 10th Guru of Sikhism, Gobind ji founded the Khalsa Panth in the year 1669 to protest against the Mughal emperors.

In Sikh literature, the creation of literature named "Chandi Deewar" by the great ideas of Guru Gobind ji holds special importance.

Guru Gobind Sahib, the tenth Guru of the Sikhs, described '5 Kakar' or '5 Kakka' as necessary for the Sikhs to always be ready in battle, in which Kesh (hair), briefs, kada, comb, kirpan (short sword) etc. Are included.

Some of the major wars fought by Guru Gobind Singh –

The 10th Guru of the Sikhs, Gobind Singh, along with his Sikh followers, fought many great battles against the Mughals. According to historians, Gobind Singh ji fought 14 wars in his life, during which he had to lose some brave Sikh soldiers along with his family members. But Guru Gobind ji continued his fight with bravery without stopping. The battles fought by Guru Gobind Singh are as follows –

Battle of Bhangani (1688)

Battle of Nandaun (1691)

Battle of Guler (1696)

First Battle of Anandapur (1700)

Battle of Nirmohgarh (1702)

Battle of Basoli (1702)

Battle of Chamkaur (1704)

Battle of Anandapur (1704)

Battle of Sarsa (1704)

Battle of Muktsar (1705)

Major compositions of Guru Gobind Singh ji -

Following are the names of some of the compositions of Guru Gobind ji –

Chandi Di Vaar

Jaap Sahib

Khalsa Mahima

Akal Ustat

Bachitra Drama


Guru Gobind Singh's birth anniversary

The birth anniversary of the 10th Guru of Sikhs i.e. Guru Gobind Singh Ji is the main festival of Sikhs, it is celebrated by the people of the Sikh community with great pomp. There are different differences regarding the birth of Guru Gobind Singh ji, some scholars celebrate the birth of Guru Gobind ji on January 5, 1666, while according to the Gregorian calendar, Guru Gobind ji was born on January 2, 1667, while the Hindu calendar He was born in Paush, Shukla Paksha Saptami 1723 Vikram Samvat.

Therefore, his birth anniversary is celebrated every year according to the date. On this day, special decorations are done in Gurdwaras, as well as langar is organized. On this day, a different light is seen in the Gurudwaras. Along with this, beautiful tableaux of this Khalsa Panth are taken out.

On the occasion of the birth anniversary of Guru Gobind Singh Ji, recitation of Guruvani and Shabad Kirtan is also done. On this day, people of Sikh communities are taught to follow the path shown by Guru Gobind ji, as well as the story of his valor is also narrated.

Some interesting facts of Guru Gobind Singh –

Guru Gobind Singh was earlier known as Gobind Rai. He was born in the house of Sikh Guru Tegh Bahadur Singh in Patna, his mother's name was Gujari.

Guru Gobind Singh's birthday is celebrated on 16 January. Guruji was born in the name of Gobind Rai on 22 December 1666. According to the Lunar calendar, January 16 is the birthday of Guru Gobind Singh.

In his childhood, Guru Gobind Singh learned many languages, including Sanskrit, Urdu, Hindi, Braj, Gurmukhi and Persian. He also taught martial arts to become a warrior.

Guru Gobind Singh in the city of Anandpur which is presently in Rupnagar district Punjab. He left this place due to a scuffle with Bhima Chand and went to Nahan, which is a hilly area of ​​Himachal Pradesh.

From Nahan, Guru Gobind Singh went to Paonta, which is situated near Sirmur Himachal Pradesh, south of the Yamuna bank. There he established the Paonta Sahib Gurdwara and he used to preach there on Sikh roots, then Paonta Sahib became a main shrine for the Sikhs. There Guru Gobind Singh used to write lessons. He stayed there for three years and in those three years, many devotees started coming there.

In September 1688, when Guru Gobind Singh was 19 years old, he fought with Bhim Chand, Garwal Raja, Fateh Khan and other Siwalik mountain kings. The war went on for the whole day and thousands of lives were lost in this war. In which Guru Gobind Singh was victorious. This war is described in "Vichitra Natak" which is a part of Dasam Granth.

In November 1688, Guru Gobind Singh returned to Anandpur, popularly known as Chak Nanaki, at the invitation of the Rani of Bilaspur.

In 1699, when everyone gathered, Guru Gobind Singh established a Khalsa Vani "Waheguru Ji ka Khalsa, Waheguru Ji ki Fateh". He named his army Singh (meaning lion). Along with this, he also established the basic principles of Khalsa.

These were the five basic principles of 'the five' which were followed by the Khalsa. It also included Baal which meant not cutting the hair. Kangha or wooden comb that symbolizes cleanliness, Kada or iron Kada (bracelet-like), Khalsa's own defense, briefs, or knee-length pajamas; It was a symbol. And Kirpan used to teach that every poor should be protected, irrespective of religion or caste.

Guru Gobind Singh is known as Guru Granth Sahib because he completed his scripture. Guru Gobind Singh gave up his life on 7 October 1708.

Guru Gobind not only preached to people in his life to help the poor, to have compassion on living beings, to live in love and brotherhood but also did many things for the upliftment of society and poor class and fought against tyranny.

Even today his followers follow his teachings, and they have immense love and respect for their Guruji in their hearts.